Colloquium - 2014/2015

Colloquium, année 2014 - 2015

Tous les jeudis à 13h30 en salle 236, 29 rue d’Ulm Paris.

Marginal stability and flow in granular materials

Matthieu Wyart (NYU) — June 25, 2015 Complex systems are characterized by an abundance of meta-stable states. This is the case for granular materials, that can flow until one jammed configuration (among the exponentially many possible ones) is (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Super-massive black holes reject their food

Françoise Combes (College de France and Observatoire de Paris) — June 18, 2015 Every galaxy hosts in its center a super-massive black hole (SMBH) of mass between one million and a few billion solar mass. Since the masses of black holes and galaxy (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

The Universe before the hot Big Bang

Valery A. Rubakov (Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow ; Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Moscow State University) — June 11, 2015 With Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory and observations, we are (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Topological Mechanical Metamaterials

Vincenzo Vitelli (Instituut-Lorentz, Leiden University) — June 4, 2015 One of the challenges of modern material science is to create artificial structures whose unconventional mechanical response can be programmed by suitable design of their (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

From the basics of spintronics to some recent developments toward spinorbitronics

Vincent Cros (Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, Palaiseau, France) — May 28, 2015 Classical spintronic devices use the exchange interaction between conduction electron spins and local spins in magnetic materials to create spin-polarized (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Short wavelength radiation – a powerful tool to explore fundamental radiation-matter interactions

Catalin Miron, Extreme Light Infrastructure : ELI-DC AISBL (Bruxelles, Belgium) & ELI-Nuclear Physics (Bucharest, Romania) — May 21, 2015 Novel research opportunities are currently explored in several laboratories around the world, were (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

What Keeps the Magnetic Fields in Planets Alive ?

Peter Davidson (Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge) — May 7, 2015 Great progress has been made in the numerical simulation of planetary dynamos, though these numerical experiments still operate in a regime very far from real (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Modelling the physics of galaxy formation in an expanding Universe : a multi-scale challenge

Julien Devriendt (University of Oxford) — April 16, 2015 In this talk, I will present state-of-the-art numerical efforts to capture the physics of galaxy formation and evolution in the explicit framework of the standard cosmological model, (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

The New Role of Time and Events in Computer Science

Gérard Berry (Collège de France) — April 9, 2015 During the 20th century, traditional computer science considered time only from the performance angle, i.e., as a major complexity measures for algorithms, circuits and programs. But the explicit (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Progress towards Fusion Energy at ITER

D.J. Campbell (ITER Organization, St Paul-lez-Durance, France) — April 2, 2015 Established by the signature of the ITER Agreement in November 2006 and sited at St Paul-lez-Durance in the highlands of Provence in southern France, the ITER (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Clustering of networks : From phase transitions to optimal algorithms

Lenka Zdeborova (IPhT Saclay) A central problem in analyzing networks or graphs is partitioning them into modules or communities, i.e. groups with a statistically homogeneous pattern of connections to each other or to the rest of the network. A (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can enhance the sensitivity of NMR by five orders of magnitude

Geoffrey Bodenhausen (Chemistry Department and UMR 7203, Ecole Normale Superieure) Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) allows one to open new avenues for medical diagnosis, biochemistry, and perhaps even for physics. The polarization of nuclei (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Nanoassembling for soft matter : fluidics and tribology at the nanoscale

Alessandro Siria (Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, ENS Paris) — March 12, 2015 New models of fluid transport are expected to emerge from the confinement of liquids at the nanoscale, where the behaviour of matter strongly departs from common (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

LEDs for lighting - the physical and materials basis

Claude Weisbuch (Laboratoire de la Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, and Materials department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) — March 5, 2015 The award of the 2014 Nobel prize for Physics to Akasaki, (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

From fundamental physics to the origins of Life : ab initio Miller experiments

Marco Saitta (Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC) Sorbonne Universités – Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) – Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle – CNRS – IRD) — February 12, 2015 Origins of life studies (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Planck : results from the full mission including polarisation

Jean-Loup Puget (Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay) — February 5, 2015 The Planck collaboration releases the results and data from the full mission including polarisation. The Planck space mission has fulilled its initial goal of (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Backaction of quantum measurement in superconducting circuits

Benjamin Huard (LPA, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris) — January 29, 2015 When a quantum system is measured, it collapses onto a state that corresponds to the measurement outcome. This measurement backaction takes subtle forms if the system first (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

From water molecules to atmospheric circulation, climate and sea-level : making sense of Greenland deep ice cores

Valérie Masson-Delmotte (LSCE, CEA Saclay) — January 22, 2015 In Greenland, deep ice cores give access to high resolution archives of past precipitation spanning the last decades to glacial-interglacial variations. I have been using measurements (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Soft Matter and Cooking : A Pedagogical Experience

Patrick Charbonneau and Justine de Valicourt (Duke University) — January 15, 2015 Contemporary chefs such as Ferran Adrià, Joan Roca, and Heston Blumenthal have more than fame in common. They use soft matter chemistry and physics to create a (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Nonequilibrium structures and glassy dynamics in dense systems of active and living particles

Ludovic Berthier (Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Montpellier) — January 8, 2015 We discuss how nonequilibrium driving forces introduced by natural biological activity or by a physical self-propulsion mechanism generically affect the structure, (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Attosecond ’lasers’ : principles, metrology and applications

Fabien Quéré (DSM/IRAMIS/LIDyL, CEA Saclay) — December 11, 2014 The vast majority of physical phenomena is Nature involve out-of-equilibrium systems. Resolving the temporal evolution of excited systems is essential to understand of the dynamics of (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Imaging of extrasolar planets : challenges, past and future

Anne-Marie Lagrange (Institut de planetologie et d’astrophysique de Grenoble, IPAG) — December 4, 2014 Searching for and characterizing extrasolar planets is one of the main objectives of today astronomy. Since the first detection of a giant (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

The Ultimate Limit of Optical Fibers to Carry Information

René-Jean Essiambre (Bell Labs France, Route de Villejust, Nozay, France) - November 27, 2014 A network of fused-silica single-mode optical fibers forms the backbone of the worldwide communication infrastructure. The maximum rate of transmission (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Hot topic in Nanomedicine : how to overcome resistance to treatments ?

Patrick COUVREUR, Université Paris-Sud — November 20, 2014 Even if new molecules are discovered to treat severe diseases, the clinical use and efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics is hampered by the following limitations : (i) drug (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Mesures de précision et tests fondamentaux : les exemples de la détermination de la distribution de charge du proton et de la mesure de la constante de structure fine

François Biraben (LKB, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris) — 13 Novembre 2014 (Exceptionally, this seminar will be in French) Depuis la fondation de l’électro-dynamique quantique (QED), l’étude du spectre de l’atome d’hydrogène et la mesure de (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Bacteria powered micro-devices

Roberto Di Leonardo (CNR & Sapienza Università di Roma) — November 6, 2014 In our efforts to get control over the world at the micron scale we often find out that we have so much to learn from living organisms that have been surviving and (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Facing energy future : implications for R&D strategy

Jean-François Minster, Directeur de la Recherche et de l’Innovation de Total - October 16, 2014 | ↦ Lire la suite

Auditory perception of temporal modulations in sounds

Christian Lorenzi, Laboratoire des systèmes perceptifs (CNRS/ENS), Département d’Etudes Cognitives, Institut d’Etude de la Cognition, Ecole normale supérieure, Paris — October 9, 2014 Acoustic signals (e.g., speech or music sounds) are decomposed by (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Statistical physics of neural assemblies coding for space and memories : old tools for recent experiments ?

Remi Monasson (Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS et Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris) — October 2, 2014 Recent experimental progresses in neurosciences in imaging, recording, and stimulating neural cells make possible a detailed (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

Department course : A few applications of vector bundles in condensed matter physics

Benoit Douçot - LPTHE, UPMC Jussieu - September 18 and September 25, 2014 With the theoretical and experimental discoveries of topological insulator, topology has become a popular subject in condensed matter physics. Topology being itself a very (...) | ↦ Lire la suite

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